One example is the research that is being conducted in the genetics of dyslexia and language disability. Having identified years ago that dyslexia seems to run in families, there was strong supposition that there was a genetic component to it. Researchers have been exploring candidate susceptibility genes for dyslexia and speech-language impairment, and recently identified chromosomes 3, 6, and 15 as potentially related to dyslexia and language impairment. This is just the tip of the iceberg in this line of inquiry.
Another compelling area is brain research. Since the 1980s, thanks to researchers such as Dr. Albert Galaburda and Dr. Norman Geshwind, we have known about the asymmetry of the dyslexic brain when compared to the non-dyslexic. Today, researchers are taking advantage of advances in neuroimaging to learn more about the dyslexic brain.